How to avoid wear & tear of body joints

Posted on: 30 April 2010 by Mark O'haire

Wear and tear on the joints of the body is one of the reasons why many of us feel old and creaky as we age. Here, Dr Harald Gaier explains how to put the spring back in your step.

Now that spring is here and the sun is starting to show its face once again, more people are venturing outdoors to make the most of that summer weather we see only too rarely. Whether it be for gardening or exercise this is when we can put sudden and unnecessary strain on our bodies so it's important to take simple steps to avoid long term problems.

Wear and tear on the joints of the body is one of the reasons why many of us feel old and creaky as we age. It might start with a painful twinge in the knee - or perhaps some stiffness in your fingers.

In healthy joints, cartilage acts as a cushion or shock absorber, providing a smooth surface between the bones. However, with wear and tear, the cartilage starts to wear away, leaving the ends of the bones exposed. They then grind against each other causing pain.

Genetics, nutrition and illness all have a role to play in how long our cartilage lasts but how you use your joints - and the muscles, ligaments and tendons around them is also vital. Here I will look at four of the main joints which are prone to wear and tear and recommend how to avoid damage suggesting which exercises can safely help to put the spring back in your step.


The hip is the ball and socket joint, which means that of all the main weight-bearing joints, it has the widest range of motion. Therefore it is the joint that suffers the most wear and tear. When walking and standing, not only does the weight of the upper body push down on the hip, but the weight of the leg, you might say, pushes up.

Avoiding wear & tear

It’s essential to keep the supporting muscles strong to support the hip and keep it stable with non-impact exercise like yoga and Pilates.

Before exercise it’s essential that the body is prepared in the right way. The muscles need to be strengthened and the joints made supple before you start any activity.

Firm cushioning in the shoe will reduce the shock suffered by the bones of the leg from each step but they won’t reduce the weight of the body, which the hip joints have to bear.


As another weight-bearing joint, the knee is the second most likely to receive wear and tear throughout life.

The body relies on the muscles of the leg to play a major role in reducing the shock to the knee from exercise. So if the muscles are allowed to waste away, the joint becomes repeatedly jarred and the cartilage gradually wears away.

Avoiding wear & tear

Some of the kind of activity that is helpful in the maintenance of the knee includes water exercises, treadmills, and cross-country skiing. High stress activities such as jumping, downhill or slalom ski racing, repeated sideways and twisting movements are not recommended.

Stretching can also keep the ligaments around the knee supple and wearing cushioned footwear can minimise the impact. In more extreme cases, occasionally taping the knees or using supports can help stabilize the bones of the knee and reduce any eccentric pressure on sections of the knee joint.

Obesity still remains the major cause of wear and tear on the knees and until recently doctors were unsure which came first – obesity or wear and tear on the knee leading to a sedentary lifestyle and weight gain.


The shoulder is less likely than the hip and knee to suffer wear and tear on the cartilage in the joint because it carries no body weight. However, repetitive actions involving some recurrent lifting may wear away cartilage in the shoulder.

Instead it’s more prone to strains of the ligaments, muscles and other structures around the shoulder, leading to conditions such as bursitis or rotator cuff tendinitis, which may sometimes be provoked by sudden lifting above head height or throwing.

Avoiding wear & tear

Many people start to feel pain in their shoulder as the soft tissues around the joint start to contract because they are not used due to the restriction of movement that will have set in.

As a result, the ball and socket start to get closer and bones start to rub against each other and the bone thickens outwards, causing bone spurs.

The first signs are usually when patients have trouble performing tasks like washing their hair or reaching up behind their back while dressing.

The best way to protect your shoulder is to keep it supple with stretching and with moderate over-head weight exercises.


The elbow is a complex joint made of three bones to allow the hand to be as dexterous as possible. It’s designed to bend and straighten so you can bring your palm to your face and it also allows you to roll your forearm as well as some side to side movement.

Avoiding wear & tear

Most problems with the elbow happen when it’s being extended and rotated at the same time, putting a huge amount of pressure on the joint.

If you’re gripping a club, racket, gardening or DIY tool too hard or for a long period, you risk either golfer or tennis elbow, which can both wear down cartilage. Both happen when the forearm tendons, which stretch over the elbow joint, get sore and tender. The difference is that golfer’s elbow affects the tendons on the inner arm, while tennis elbow affects those on the outside.

Among the best way to reduce the wear and tear is to make grip handles larger so your grip is not so tight. Splints, which also support the tendons, will also protect the elbow from damage.

It is important to look after your joints from an early age to avoid future wear and tear. This problem is not preventable however it can be helped by looking after yourself and taking the above steps to reduce the strain on the body. If you would like more information please contact me through my website (

By Dr Harald Gaier

Introducing Dr Harald Gaier

Dr Harald GaierAs a naturopathic physician based on Harley Street, Harald Gaier has nearly four decades of clinical experience and writes for several of today's leading alternative medicine publications. Austrian-born, he has a heritage in medicine but his passion has always been in using science and nature to inform natural practices and solve medical dilemmas.

Harald Gaier is fully registered in the UK in all the major alternative medical disciplines including Osteopathy, Homoeopathy, Acupuncture, Naturopathy and Herbal medicine. Using natural remedies to cure almost any medical condition he is an expert in Prostate Cancer, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Menopause, Insomnia and various lifestyle issues.

About me

I would like to use this first column to introduce myself and offer my help and advice for any medical concern you may have. As a world leading natural medicine clinician I am often referred to as the 'Medical Detective', and don't just help people, I fix them!

I was invited to the UK in 1987 by the Royal Society of Medicine to contribute to their colloquia on complementary and alternative medicine, and have worked here ever since. Spending six years serving on the Research Committee of the Prince of Wales' Foundation for Integrated Health as a naturopathic physician, I most recently held the appointment of Director of Medical Research at two major clinics in London.

My Philosophy

Science is not the prerogative of orthodox medicine, it is knowledge that comes over time. In natural medicine this has come from thousands of years of history - a much larger time frame than pharmaceutical medical trials, so in reality the evidence is stronger regarding the benefits of natural medicine.

I believe that there are non-orthodox medical treatments for virtually any disorder, which have been shown as successful in hard-science backed, published investigations and I  have published reviews regularly on such investigations for the past nineteen years.

"Growing old is compulsory, but staying healthy is optional.”

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